Knowing about Cancer
When a normal body cell develops abnormally or that grow out-of-control and invade other tissues potentially can cause cancer. These abnormal cells are termed cancer cells, malignant cells, or tumour cells. When cancer cells break away from the original mass of cells, further travelling through the lymph systems, and then lodging in other organs to repeat the growth cycle can be termed as a metastatic spread. It leaves an area and grows in another body area
The three most common cancer in men, women, and children in the are as follows:
- Men: Prostate, lung
- Women: Breast, lung
- Children: Leukemia, brain tumours, and lymphoma
When do cells become cancerous?
Cells become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA. They are like-
- Due to inherited genetic defects
- Infections from others
- Environmental factors (for example, air pollution)
- Poor lifestyle choices like smoking and heavy alcohol
- When damaged cells grow, divide, and spread abnormally instead of self-destructing as they should
Major causes of cancerous cells
- Chemical or toxic compound exposures like Benzene, asbestos, nickel, cadmium, vinyl chloride, benzidine, N-nitrosamines, tobacco or cigarette smoke asbestos, and aflatoxin
- Ionizing radiation materials like Uranium, radon, ultraviolet rays from sunlight, radiation from alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray-emitting sources
- Pathogens of Human papillomavirus, hepatitis viruses B and C, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Schistosoma spp, Helicobacter pylori; and other bacteria
- Human Genetics has been linked to a number of specific cancers like breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, skin and melanoma.
Symptoms and signs of cancer
Depending on the type of cancer, its severity and exactly where it is located, the symptoms of pain or extreme fatigue are present. It is very important to understand these warning signs and symptoms that are associated with cancer to take prompt medical attention. There are specialists such as Targeting Cancer that can help and guide you better in such cases. If these signs and symptoms persist then one should consult a doctor immediately. Some of them are: –
- You get to see a change in bowel or bladder habits
- Peculiar sign of a sore throat that does not heal
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, or any part of the body
- Indigestion and difficulty in swallowing
- Changes in the size, colour, shape, or thickness of a wart or mole
- Severe nagging cough or hoarseness
- Unexplained loss of weight or loss of appetite
- Pain in the bones or other parts of the body that may be worsening
- Persistent fatigue
- Uncalled nausea, or vomiting
- Unexplained low-grade fever that is frequent mostly
- Recurring infections which appear unresolved
What are the different types of cancer?
There are over 200 types of cancer, and below we are listing some specific types of cancers found in each category:
- Carcinoma: This type of cancer usually begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs — skin, lung, colon, pancreatic, ovarian.
- Sarcoma: This type of cancer forms in the regions of bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
- Leukemia: Cancer that begins to form in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and slowly it causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to produce and enter the blood.
- Lymphoma and myeloma: This cancer begins in the cells of the immune system.
- Central nervous system cancers: Cancers that start to form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.
Treatments and Regimen in Cancer
- The cancer treatment is based on the type of cancer and the stage of cancer. In some acute cases after the diagnosis doctors may surgically remove cancer and provide the treatment at the same time.
- The other unique sequenced treatment or protocols that are targeting cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of two treatments.
- Palliative therapy is a regimen done with the intent to extend and improve the quality of life of terminally ill cancer patients.